WALNUT CULTIVATION

 

The all Ukraine public organization «Ukrainian nut association» strenuously works on Nut cultivation revival in Ukraine. An association innovation - creation of the industrial corporate gardens citizens can become which owners. After all it is necessary to help for them to realize the right to possession in two hectares of the earth of agricultural appointment. And there will be such gardens, new possibilities for small and medium business in the sphere of the export focused deep processing of fruits, leaves, wood, shells at once will open. To create the new goods, food and pharmaceutical preparations.

 

The walnut is also thermophilic, as well as grapes. For this reason optimum for its cultivation - a zone of neukryvny wine growing. Where minus temperatures seldom fall in the winter below - 25°С, and the frost-free period equals to 200 days, after all culture wegetates 120-170 days. Young not fructifying trees well transfer short frosts - 25°С … - 32°С.

By us it is established that conditions of rewintering of a nut depend also on a condition of trees. Weakened by a drought, they are more strongly damaged by a frost, than what wegetates in favorable conditions. They are most sensitive in blooming of kidneys and flowering. On size and quality of a crop the great influence is rendered not by winter low temperatures, and late spring frosts.

The weakest stability to low temperatures roots possess. It is necessary for considering at autumn planting of trees. The friable fabric of roots is damaged at - 5°С … - 6°С that can lead to full death of plants.

Light and location influence. The walnut – a photophilous fruit crop, perfectly grows and fructifies at good lighting. Separate trees form powerful, densely oblistvenny krone. In zagushchenny landings - crowns rare, with the weak sheet device, prematurely grow old, poorly or don't fructify at all. Attempts to create a walnut garden with a large number of trees on 1 hectare success didn't crown. It is necessary to give preference to a southwest exposition.


 

Soil and moisture influence. The nut best of all grows on moderately damp carbonate loams with low constant level of ground waters. The boggy and strongly condensed soils are absolutely unsuitable for a laying of a walnut. Ground waters should be not closer 2-2,5 meters from an earth surface. On sour soils it is necessary to hold agro meliorative events.

Maintenance of the soil. Annually big crops of nuts can be received only in cases when in plantings the full complex of the agro actions providing all-round increase or maintenance at high level of fertility of the soil is carried out.

In the conditions of an insufficient watering this complex should provide also the most complete absorption by the soil of moisture and its rational use by trees. Therefore the best way of the maintenance of the soil in walnut gardens in the conditions of an insufficient watering - black steam. Due to the features of use of soil moisture nut trees, it is possible to recommend system of the content of black steam with siderates. Thus siderates sow in the second half of summer and plow up in the autumn. It is necessary to use: a lupine, to a rank, peas, to Vick with oats. In the conditions of an irrigation the soil can be contained in row-spacings of a garden under a zaluzheniye, and also for crops of long-term bean herbs.


Application of fertilizers. Introduction in a nut garden of nitrogenous fertilizers should be carried out carefully as they favor to bacteriosis development. It is not necessary to introduce these fertilizers within 2-3 years in the beginning of fructification of trees.

Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers favor to fructification. To bring them it is necessary at level of roots. And here deeply to loosen the soil doesn't follow. The less than ripping during the summer, the better for a tree.

Irrigation. A nut tree - the big consumer of water during the spring-and-summer period (May, June, July, August). The quantity of an atmospheric precipitation, as a rule, isn't enough at this time. Therefore at the slightest possibility waterings are recommended. It is impossible when to water, it is necessary to carry out a high security of economy of moisture in the soil.

The best option in a solution of the problem of economy of water - use of production of MaxiMarin which allows to improve at the same time structure of the soil and to adjust moisture under root system of a plant for the long period of time. Production is made in Ukraine and is available in application.

Landing. Preparation of a material for landing consists, first of all, in its careful sorting. Saplings for landing should be healthy, well developed. Not to allow a drying of root system, it is possible to dip roots into nutritious Maximarin gel.  Dig out saplings and sit down in their spring. Autumn digging out and the laying of a garden is possible only in the southern areas, not later than the first half of October. Terms of autumn landing choose in 1-1,5 months prior to the beginning of frosts. It is not recommended to dig out saplings in the autumn and to store them till spring in winter digging. Tree we sit down in the poles which size depends on the size of root system of a landing material, but depth and width not less than 70 centimeters. In all cases depth of a pole should be on 30-40 cm more than a length of root system. It is necessary for the best growth of roots deep into.

Before landing the damaged roots cut off a sharp knife, and the root system is dipped into nutritious Maximarin gel (at the rate of 1 liter on 15 saplings). The length of root system should be not less than 30 centimeters. When landing a pole half cover with earth, 50х50 % mixed with humus, and slightly stamp. On a bottom put on 4 tablets MaxiMarin (for moisture regulation), insert a sapling, straighten its roots, powder with the earth and well it condense. The root neck of a sapling when landing, after watering and land subsidence, should be up to standard of an earth surface. For simplicity of landing it is possible to use a level (lath) in length 1 meter with marks of the middle and on 35 cm from it. The level keeps within on level of the firm earth so that marks of 35 cm were along the edges of a hole. The root neck of a sapling is fixed in the center at level level. Thus, the sapling will be in the center, and a root neck - at ground level.


 

For the best rooting and good growth of roots in the first years of life it is recommended on the grown poor soils in each pole to bring on 7-10 kg of humus and 4-5 tablets MaxiMarin. The planted trees plentifully water. Norm: not less than 2 buckets of water on one seat. For prevention of drying and soil cracking, seats it is necessary to mulch a peat crumb, sawdust, straw a layer of 2-3 centimeters. Round a sapling to create on distance of 30-50 cm from a trunk an embankment from an earth and humus mix: 3:1 for collecting rain water and a food of root system. Near a sapling establish a wooden peg in diameter 0,23 and length 1,5 meters. A sapling connect with a peg the crossed eight not to damage a young bark.  In 12-15 days after landing a near-stamp circle of a sapling plentifully water (15-20 liters on a sapling). Then water as required. The first year of fertilizer don't bring, to a scrap don't make.